Q. What is an example of an underdog company having success against an incumbent?
I think that Mozilla taking on Microsoft is a pretty phenomenal story. For the five years before Firefox 1 launched, everyone, I mean everyone (including the people who were rooting for Mozilla) said it was impossible.
When Firefox 1 was released, Internet Explorer accounted for about 95% of all browser usage and IE users numbered in the hundreds of millions.
When Firefox 1 was released, Mozilla employed about a dozen people while Microsoft employed nearly 60,000 people.
When Firefox 1 was released as an Internet download, Internet Explorer was, and had been for the better part of a decade, shipping on 95% of all new computers being sold.
When Firefox 1 was released, Microsoft's annual revenue was about $36B and Mozilla was running on the fumes of its $2M over 2 years initial funding.
There really haven't been many challenges so lopsided as this one that turned out as well for the underdog.